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Cold Hardy Eucalyptus globulus / Tasmanian Blue Gum
Existant large scale cultivated forests of Eucalyptus in Europe and Northern Africa. Approximately 1.5 million hectares distributed mainly in the Iberian Peninsula (+80%), France, Morocco and Italy, but also noticeable in several countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Majority of these forests for mild temperate maritime (Atlantic) climates are based on E. globulus, and majority of those in semiarid temperate (Mediterranean) climates are based on E. camaldulensis, so they can be considered index species. The previous and many other less common species normally having their natural Australian habitat in coastal Victoria, southern New South Wales and Tasmania have been and are successfully cultivated in these areas, but their cold hardiness is limited and unsuitable for long term survival in severe European winters at more northern latitudes.

Cold Hardy Eucalyptus nitens / Shining Gum
Areas suitable for cultivation of cold hardier species well adapted to humid winters and able to tolerate relatively frequent freezing events and absolute minima within -5 and -10ºC. Many alternatives arise here both for forestry and ornamental purposes, mainly with origins in the Tablelands of New South Wales and Victoria and the Tasmanian highlands, but E. nitens is chosen as index species due to its remarkable acclimation and growth rates in these conditions. Dozens of thousands hectares of these eucalypts are scattered in the highlands of both Spain and Portugal and coastal and inland locations of France, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Examples of survival can be found in a wider range of locations as far north as Scotland or mild microclimates in the Netherlands or Switzerland.

Cold Hardy Eucalyptus gunnii / Cider Gum
Areas suitable for cultivation of the cold hardiest species adapted to humid winters and capable of resisting severe regular and continued freezing events with absolute minima within -10 and -15ºC. Using appropriate genotypes selected for their cold tolerance there are exceptional chances of survival for temperatures as low as -23ºC. A handful of alternative species can be cultivated, mainly with origins in Australian subalpine habitats along the Great Dividing Range and the coldest areas of Tasmania. E. gunnii is chosen as index species due to its long term tested acclimation in these conditions. Examples of successful forestry plantations can be found in central France and the British Isles, and examples of good survival scattered along the Atlantic coast from Normandy to as far north as the fjords of Scandinavia.

Cold Hardy Eucalyptus ficifolia / Red Flower Gum
Areas suitable for cultivation of species from tropical, subtropical or generally frost-free regions of Australia. Performance is better for species from equivalent Mediterranean climates, mainly from Southern and Western Australia, but survival is possible for a vast number eucalypt types as long as minimum rainfall or irrigation are convenient. Species more suitable to Atlantic climates can survive easily but grow poorly and suffer from drought stress by summer. Species from dry sclerophyll forests normally do fine. Corymbia ficifolia is chosen as index species for its plasticity to resist relatively high rainfall, survive noticeable drought periods and resist well few, very mild and low duration freezing events.

Cold Hardy Eucalyptus camaldulensis / rostrata / Red River Gum
Areas suitable for cultivation of eucalypt species showing some tolerance to winter cold and able to resist drought. Species originating in arid sclerophyl open forests or barelands and deserts of western New South Wales, northern Southern Australia and southern and southeastern West Australia can do well. Normally a careful choice of species and further selection of seed provenances is needed for species with wide distribution areas to improve performance in areas with winters subject to common freezing events. E. camaldulensis is chosen as index species for its long term cultivation in the Mediterranean Basin in very variable conditions of soil, water availability and winter restrictions, from Morocco to Middle East and from Southwestern Iberia to Cyprus across the Spanish coast, Balearic Islands, le Côte d'Azur, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, mainland Italy, the Adriatic coast, the Aegean islands and mainland Greece.

Cold Hardy Eucalyptus deglupta / Rainbow Eucalypt / Mindanao Gum
Not explicit in the main map, there are particular areas suitable for cultivation of a wide range of subtropical, maritime and Mediterranean species but in addition allowing the cultivation of purely tropical species that require high and uniform temperatures and a relative regular abundance of moisture all year long. Mainland Europe does not provide the ideal conditions for these but suitable Hawaiian-like microclimates in Madeira, Açores and the Canary Islands do. E. deglupta is chosen as index species but many others can thrive in these conditions except those from subalpine climates in Australia or those requiring cold winters.

Note: These general guidelines and descriptions are considered to be conservative. There are examples of success cultivation for each of the index species in lightly more restrictive climatic conditions, sometimes measured as survival in the long term, others as survival in the medium term. Much depends on microclimatic conditions, soil types, the use of select or genetically improved plant stock and appropriate pre & post planting management practices.



Special thanks to Ian Barclay, Benoit Binson & Jeff Kubina



GIT Forestry Consulting EUCALYPTOLOGICS Blog: Information Resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Blog EUCALYPTOLOGICS Recursos de Informacion sobre el cultivo de Eucalyptus en el Mundo
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